As timber is very variable, these are average figures only.
When nailing through a piece of wood close to its end, remove most of the point of the nail beforehand, either by hitting it with the hammer, or else grind away half of the length of the point. The nail will then cut the grain of the wood, instead of pushing it apart.
Black finish for wood.
To give a black finish to wood, dissolve permanganate of potash in water and apply to the surface.
Wood block flooring and roads.
Blocks wear in centre not at edges. Can be turned over to use other end when worn. Blocks are laid end grain upwards. ( So are butchers blocks.) Red gum, Jarrah or kari are best for roads. Blocks typically 9" long x 3" wide x 6" deep. Usually creosoted. Wear = 0.128" per year in Oxford Street, ¼ inch in Fleet Street.
Tree rings / grain close = slow growing = hard. Grain wide apart = quick growth, close together = soft.
Cut trees down in winter, season for 3 - 5 years before cutting. Seasoning timber. 1" thick = 2 years; 2"=3 years; 4" = 4½ years. Soaking in water shortens time, but reduces strength.
Soaking wet wood has ½ strength of dry wood. ¾ gal of creosote per cu. ft. of timber for full penetration. ½ gal for oak, 1 gall for pine.
Weight of casting, compared to weight of pattern.
The weight of the pattern in well dried pine, gives the following weight of casting.
X 5.6, for weight of aluminium X 16 for weight of cast iron X 17.6 for weight of steel X 18.25 for weight of brass X 18.5 for weight of gunmetal X 19 for weight of copper